Studio Ingegneria Maggi studio di progettazione integrata ed ottimizzata | Adeguamento sismico di strutture in muratura: le varie tipologie di intervento
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Adeguamento sismico di strutture in muratura: le varie tipologie di intervento

intonaco_armato-sts

15 Gen Adeguamento sismico di strutture in muratura: le varie tipologie di intervento

om’è noto, per gli edifici esistenti in muratura, è possibile ricorrere a diversi metodi di analisi, in funzione del modello con il quale vengono descritte la strutture ed il suo comportamento sismico.
In particolare, si possono manifestare meccanismi locali e meccanismi d’insieme.

La sicurezza della costruzione deve essere valutata nei confronti di entrambi i tipi di meccanismo.
Per quello che riguarda l’analisi globale, la libreria Strutturale STS, permette l’utilizzo anche di analisi e modelli non lineari di comprovata validità.

L’analisi della risposta globale di un edificio ha però significato solo quando sono impediti i meccanismi di collasso locali fuori dal piano risultato spesso ottenibile con l’inserimento di catene o cordoli.

Per l’analisi sismica dei meccanismi locali si può far ricorso ai metodi dell’analisi limite dell’equilibrio delle strutture murarie, tenendo conto della resistenza a compressione della tessitura muraria, della qualità della connessione tra le pareti murarie e della presenza di cordoli e tiranti.

Nel caso in cui, ad analisi conclusa, si evidenziassero carenze nei collegamenti è possibile implementare nel modello le seguenti tipologie d’intervento e procedere ad una nuova valutazione della capacità di resistenza dell’edificio:

Cerchiature Aperture

Tale intervento di consolidamento e miglioramento sismico prevede l’inserimento, all’interno delle aperture, di telai costituiti da profili in acciaio o elementi in c.a. L’interfaccia utente è stata sviluppata per consentire un’agevole inserimento di tali elementi in modo da realizzare facilmente la riquadratura delle aperture. I telai lavorano in parallelo con i maschi murari e forniscono un incremento di resistenza e di duttilità alle pareti. La procedura può altresì essere usata per praticare nuove aperture su muri esistenti, verificando l’equivalenza tra muratura piena e foratura cerchiata e eliminando quindi la necessità di effettuare il calcolo dell’intero edificio.

Intonaco Armato

La tecnica di consolidamento mediante intonaci armati consiste nel realizzare, in aderenza alla superficie del paramento murario, sia sulla parete esterna che su quella interna, una parete di materiale a base cementizia, armata con rete metallica e resa solidale alla stessa con barre ancorate nella muratura per almeno 2/3 dello spessore murario.

Dissipatori
Il dissipatore sismico è un dispositivo che consente spesso di adeguare, in modo relativamente semplice ed economico, strutture esistenti altrimenti non recuperabili. I dissipatori isteretici assiali sono dispositivi antisismici non-lineari il cui comportamento dipende essenzialmente dallo spostamento. Questi sono particolarmente adatti ad essere utilizzati come controventi dissipativi, per la protezione sismica mediante dissipazione di energia. L’inserimento di tali dispositivi comporta un incremento della capacità dissipativa della struttura, e quindi migliora sensibilmente la sua risposta al sisma. L’inserimento di controventi dissipativi appartiene alla categoria di tecniche che riducono la domanda sismica.
I controventi, in particolare agiscono attraverso l’effetto combinato dell’incremento della dissipazione e della rigidezza e, in generale, permettono di ridurre lo spostamento di interpiano.
Nastri Metallici Pretesi

Sistema tridimensionale di cuciture per il rafforzamento delle strutture murarie esistenti che consente la prevenzione della disgregazione della tessitura muraria. Può essere applicato in caso di necessità di rinforzi diffusi. I nastri sono posizionati a formare maglie chiuse disposte in continuità secondo disposizioni che possono essere verticali e/o orizzontali e/o diagonali, tra loro anche sovrapposte, con forature disposte secondo un reticolo regolare.

Tirantature
Le strutture in muratura risultano altamente vulnerabili nei confronti di un’azione sismica in quanto presentano spesso un comportamento non scatolare con conseguente possibile innesco di meccanismi locali di collasso delle murature perimetrali.
Le tirantature sono elementi tradizionalmente impiegati con funzioni strutturali di collegamento, contenimento e ritegno e sono quindi sottoposte a sforzo di trazione. Nell’ambito del consolidamento strutturale, esse sono utilizzate principalmente per:
− contrastare l’azione di ribaltamento di pareti fuori dal loro piano;
− assorbire spinte anomale o dovute a coperture a volta;
− conferire all’edificio un comportamento scatolare funzionando da collegamento tra le varie pareti

FONTE: www.ingenio.it

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