Studio Ingegneria Maggi studio di progettazione integrata ed ottimizzata | APPROFONDIMENTO TECNICO: La vulnerabilità sismica degli edifici storici in muratura: il caso della chiesa di San Nicola e dell’ex convento agostiniano
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APPROFONDIMENTO TECNICO: La vulnerabilità sismica degli edifici storici in muratura: il caso della chiesa di San Nicola e dell’ex convento agostiniano

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07 Lug APPROFONDIMENTO TECNICO: La vulnerabilità sismica degli edifici storici in muratura: il caso della chiesa di San Nicola e dell’ex convento agostiniano

Oggetto del seguente articolo è l’analisi della vulnerabilità sismica del complesso storico in muratura della chiesa di San Nicola e dell’ex convento agostiniano, situati nel comune di San Valentino in Abruzzo Citeriore (Pe).
L’edificio
La chiesa di San Nicola e l’ex convento oggetto di studio costituiscono il residuo di numerose modificazioni subite dall’originario complesso agostiniano nel corso dei secoli. Il convento ha una forma ad U e contiene dunque al suo interno un chiostro in cui sorge la chiesa di San Nicola.
Prima del calcolo, un rilievo tecnologico costruttivo ha permesso di riscontrare le stesse caratteristiche nelle strutture murarie del convento, della chiesa e degli annessi: esse sono costituite da muratura portante in pietra bianca della Majella con malta cementizia, caratterizzata da conci irregolari e non rifiniti, con apparecchiatura irregolare.
Inoltre, sono stati rilevati cordoli in cemento armato sulle sommità della chiesa, della sagrestia e del campanile, affiancati da UPN 160 in acciaio, su cui sono state ancorate due tirantature metalliche. Nel convento si riscontra, nelle ali sinistra e centrale, la presenza di catene metalliche all’altezza del solaio del primo piano, con capichiave a paletto.
Per il livello di conoscenza acquisito, il complesso è stato ascritto ad un livello di conoscenza LC1, relativo ad una conoscenza limitata. È stato quindi assunto un fattore di confidenza FC1 pari a 1,35.
L’analisi sismica
Si è passati poi all’analisi sismica. Innanzitutto, si è partiti dall’analisi cinematica lineare, per indagare il comportamento locale della struttura relativamente al primo modo di danno.
Partendo dalla suddivisione in macroelementi e poi con la scelta dei meccanismi di collasso, sono state determinate le accelerazioni di attivazione dei meccanismi e degli indici di rischio.
Come si evince dal grafico, per la maggior parte dei cinematismi la verifica non risulta soddisfatta; emerge quindi la necessità di interventi volti ad aumentare la qualità dei collegamenti e quindi a indurre un comportamento scatolare del complesso.
Si è passati poi ad un’analisi globale relativa al II modo di danno, supponendo la presenza di presidi volti ad aumentare la scatolarità dell’insieme. Per l’analisi globale, si è scelta una modellazione più sofisticata, agli elementi finiti, attraverso il software Midas FEA. In particolare, i pannelli murari sono stati modellati con elementi solidi tetraedrici e discretizzati poi attraverso una griglia (mesh) composta da primitive (elementi finiti): l’obiettivo è quello di rappresentare il più fedelmente possibile la struttura reale. Anche le strutture voltate, quindi, sono state modellate e discretizzate in mesh, per avere in fase di analisi una miglior distribuzione dei carichi.
È stata posta particolare attenzione nella discretizzazione degli elementi finiti a contatto fra loro. È fondamentale, infatti, che gli elementi finiti presentino nodi in comune in corrispondenza delle facce a contatto in modo da non avere un comportamento indipendente tra gli elementi a contatto.

FONTE: www.ingenio.it

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